Document Type : Original Article


Department of Epidemiology, Research Institute of Medical Entomology, The General Organization for Institutes and Teaching Hospitals, Ministry of Health, Dokki, Egypt.


Malaria as a disease has been identified in Egypt since ancient times. Malaria was endemic in almost all parts of the country but prevalence showed a steady decrease by 1990, and regressed in most of the Governorates. Then by the end of 1998 till now Egypt become free from local transmission of malaria. All reported cases were imported mainly from Sudan. However, the outbreak of falciparum (1 case) and vivax (23 cases) that occurred (May 2014) in Aswan Governorate strongly indicated that malaria is reemerging in the country. El-Fayoum should be take special attention, rather than being the last residual focus. The efficient malaria vector A. sergenti, the proven vector A. pharoensis and the suspected vector A. multicolor were encountered. This work reevaluated malaria status by using RDTs in survey and Giemsa stained thick films to confirm positive cases and estimation of parasite rate, formula, densities and
species, also to study the ecological and entomological efficacy factors. The result showed that out of 2044 examined persons, 14 (0.68 %) were passive cases i.e. attending themselves to El-Fayoum Malaria Units after their return from Sudan. Microscopic examination of their stained thick films obtained from MOH&P shows that 9 (64.2%) out of passive cases were positive 3 of them are P. falciparum (33.3%) and the rest P. vivax 6(66.7%) The species formulas of P. falciparum and P. vivax were 33.3% and 66.7% respectively. Concerning the density class, only one vivax case was of low density class while the other cases were of high density class. All positive cases were males, imported from Sudan and most of them were merchants having trade activities in Sudan. All examined persons during active case detection ACD (1551) and neighborhood of detected cases NOD (479) were malaria negative by rapid diagnostic tests. The areas recording the highest number of imported cases were Abu Shanap, Aboxa (Ballona) and Kafr Aboud (Abshaway Center) but no Anopheline spp larvae were detected. While in Al Nazla A. sergeni and A. multicolor larvae were detected where
there was no any imported case or even traveler to Sudan. If the situation is reversed i.e. an imported case inhabit Al Nazla, reemergence of local malaria may start. The situation of Kafr Fazara is greatly changed by using fine sand instead of clay in manufacturing red brick after prevention excavation of land. No imported cases or Anopheline spp larvae were recorded.