Document Type : Original Article


1 Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Embaba 30, Giza, Egypt.

2 National Institute of Diabetes and Endocrinology (NIDE), Egypt.


Critical limb ischemia (CLI) in high surgical risk patients with chronic liver diseases has a grave prognosis with a one-year mortality rate of 20% and a oneyear amputation rate of 25% after the initial diagnosis. According to Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC)-II Guidelines, revascularization (surgical & endovascular) is the treatment of choice for patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). The primary goal of revascularization is to relieve ischemic rest pain, heal ulcers, prevent amputation, improve patient’s quality of life (limb salvage) and secondary goal was the periprocedural complications. Endovascular techniques include balloon angioplasty, stents, stent-grafts, and plaque debulking procedures. Surgical options, identification of patients at risk of postoperative complications could have an impact on the indications for a procedure as well as permitting modifications of treatment to reduce the surgical risk. This study evaluated the treatment out comes after limb salvage angioplasty for patients who otherwise would be candidates for primary amputation due to poor co-morbid conditions as chronic liver disease and diabetes. The clinical evaluation, laboratory investigations and abdominal ultrasonography were performed to all patients to evaluate their liver status. Patients were classified according to Child-pugh classification into child A, B & C. All patients were subjected to either detailed arterial duplex or C.T. angiography to assess their arterial lesions from January 2008- January 2010. 95 patients with critical limb ischemia (Rutherford categories 4, 5, 6) were treated by primary percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). No patient was excluded on the basis of the extent of arterial occlusive disease. The primary end points were immediate technical success, clinical improvement and limb salvages rates. Secondary end points were periproce ural complications and mortality. Most of the patients were male (54.7%) with mean age 62 (48-70 years). Underlying cirrhosis due to HCV was (82.2%), HBV (5.4%), while mixed viral infections was (12.4%). 54% were categorized as Child B, 32% as child A and 14% as child C. Associated diabetes mellitus was present in 96% of the cases, hypertension in 64.2%, ischemic heart disease in 74% and hyperlipedemia in 32%. Rest pain, tissue loss, or both, were the presenting symptoms in 83% while infec472 tion and ulcer were present in the other 17% of patients. The total numbers of interventions were 154; the treated lesions were 89 in the tibial arteries, 12 in the popliteal artery, 44 in the superficial femoral artery, 3 in the common femoral artery and 6 in the iliac arteries with initial technical success rate of 93.6% and periprocedural complications of 12.6%. All patients were in Rutherford clinical category 4, 5, 6 none of these patients had a previous bypass operation. Mean follow-up was 15 months. The limb-salvage rate was 87.4%. Eighty patients (84.2%) of toe amputation sites healed primarily. three patients with rest pain had resolution of their symptoms after angioplasty. All technical failures were due to inability to cross the lesions. Of the 6 technical failures, 4 required amputation, and 2 refused any further therapy.