Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566
Consultant of Clinical Pathology ,Military Medical Academy, Cairo 11291
Consultant of Public Health, Military Medical Academy, Cairo 11291
Consultant of Nursing & Hospital Administration, Military Medical Academy, Cairo 11291
Rat-bite fever, also known as streptobacillosis, spirillary fever, bogger, and epidemic arthritic
erythema, is a zoonotic illness that manifests with acute relapsing fever with migratory polyartthralgia.
It is a zoonotic infectious disease from rodents to man either via rodent urine or mucosal
secretions or even nasal, fecal, or ocular secretions of an infected rodent. It was reported in
Japan, the United States, Europe, Australia, and Africa caused by two different bacteria: Streptobacillus
moniliformis, the only bacteria that causes RBF in North America (streptobacillary
RBF) Spirillum minus, common in Asia (spirillary RBF, or sodoku). Without treatment, rat bite
fever can lead to severe complications; pneumonia, meningitis, heart infection (myocarditis,
endocarditis) and blood sepsis, led to death 7-10%. When treated promptly, prognosis is very
good. Tetanus and rabies immunization is a must, although rat bite rarely causes rabies.