Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University, Cairo 11566

2 Consultant of Pathology, Military Medical Academy, Cairo, 11291

3 Consultant of Endemic Diseases, Misr University for Science and Technology, Egypt


A TORCH infection, also known as TORCH syndrome, is an infection of the developing fetus or
newborn that can occur in utero, during delivery, or after birth. TORCH syndrome is a cluster of
symptoms caused by congenital infection with toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, Herpes
simplex, and other organisms including syphilis, parvovirus, and Varicella zoster as well as Zika
virus and others. TORCH syndrome is caused by in-utero infection with one of the TORCH
agents, disrupting fetal development. Early diagnosis by specific IgM and persistence of IgG
beyond 6-9 months is diagnostic. TORCH syndrome may develop before birth, causing stillbirth,
in the neonatal period, or later in life, refers very broadly pathogens that cause perinatal infection
and contribute to neonatal morbidity and mortality. They can cause non-specific signs
and symptoms in the fetus or infant, such as microcephaly, lethargy, cataracts, hearing loss, and
congenital heart diseases. Other signs include hepatosplenomegaly, petechiae or purpura,
jaundice, vision loss, intellectual disability, deafness, and seizures. Treatment of pregnancy
women is supportive and depends on symptoms present and thereby preventing the infection
from affecting the fetus.