Document Type : Original Article


1 Consultant Ophthalmology, Military Medical Academy, Cairo, 11291, Egypt

2 Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, 11566, Egypt


Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is important for many bodily functions, including
proper vision, a strong immune system, reproduction and good skin health. There are two types
of vitamin A found in foods: preformed vitamin A and provitamin A. It is also known as retinol
and commonly found in meat, fish, eggs and dairy products. Besides, body converts carotenoids
in plant foods, such as red, green, yellow and orange fruits and vegetables, into vitamin A.
But, many people in developing countries do not get enough Vitamin A. The highest risk of
vitamin A deficiency is in pregnant women, breastfeeding mothers, infants and children. Signs
and symptoms of vitamin A deficiency could be dry skin, dry eyes, night blindness, male and
female infertility and trouble conceiving, delayed growth, throat and chest infections, poor
wound healing, acne and breakouts, cystic fibrosis and chronic diarrhea. However, hypervitaminosis
A, excess vitamin A, or vitamin A toxicity causes serious vision changes, mouth
ulcers, confusion and birth defects.